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NCTech ACCA SBL Preseen – December 2023 ACCA

NCTech ACCA SBL Preseen has been released. In this article we analyse each aspect under all models.


The NCTech ACCA SBL Preseen material is a comprehensive document provided before their examinations to give you the context of the business and company to be examined. This document helps you develop a contextual understanding to enable you to apply your theoretical knowledge and analytical skills when preparing for the exam. To enhance your performance, you should thoroughly understand the NCTech ACCA SBL Preseen material to provide detailed, relevant, and accurate answers in the exam. A proper understanding developed from the NCTech ACCA SBL Preseen document directly correlates with better performance and higher scores in the exam. 

Company Introduction 

What Does the Company Do?

NCTech is a leading cloud service company specializing in Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS). It provides businesses with robust and scalable cloud infrastructure solutions, emphasizing flexibility and security.

Location of the Company 

NCTech operates in Farland, a developed country, as indicated by the nature of its cloud service industry, which is typically more advanced in developed nations due to better technological Infrastructure and higher demand for sophisticated cloud services.

Corporate Status and Ownership

  • Incorporation and Listing: NCTech was incorporated by three software engineers. After its initial years, it transitioned from being venture-capital funded to a publicly listed company, reflecting growth and the need for more diversified funding.
  • Founders and Ownership: The founders still hold significant stakes in the company, suggesting ongoing influence and commitment. The current ownership structure includes public shareholders, indicating a broadened governance and accountability framework.

Capital Structure and Sources of Financing 

  • Past Structure: Initially, NCTech’s capital structure relied heavily on venture capital investment, which is typical for start-ups.
  • Current Structure: As a publicly listed company, it has access to equity financing through stock market investors. This shift implies a more complex capital structure involving equity and potentially other forms of financing like debt.

Financial insights 

Financial Performance Overview


  • 20X1: Revenue was $55,850,000.
  • 20X2: There was an increase to $58,450,000.
  • 20X3: A slight decrease to $57,145,000.

Analysis: NCTech experienced growth from 20X1 to 20X2, followed by a marginal decline in 20X3. This trend suggests fluctuations in sales performance or market conditions.

Gross Profit Margin (as a percentage)

  • 20X1: 49.6%
  • 20X2: 48.6%
  • 20X3: 46.5%

Analysis: The gross profit margin has been decreasing annually. This declining trend could indicate rising costs, pricing pressures, or a change in sales mix towards lower-margin products.

Profit Before Tax 

  • 20X1: $2,865,000
  • 20X2: $3,063,000
  • 20X3: $2,914,000

Analysis: Profit before tax increased from 20X1 to 20X2 but then declined in 20X3. This pattern mirrors the revenue trend, suggesting that the company’s profitability is closely tied to its sales performance.

Return on Capital Employed (ROCE)

  • 20X1: 17.8%
  • 20X2: 18.2%
  • 20X3: 17.2%

Analysis: The ROCE peaked in 20X2 and decreased slightly in 20X3. A higher ROCE is generally better, indicating efficient use of capital. The decrease in 20X3 could raise concerns about capital utilization or profitability.

Key Observations and Implications

  • Revenue Fluctuations: NCTech needs to investigate the cause behind the drop in revenue in 20X3 to identify if it’s due to market factors, competitive pressures, or internal inefficiencies.
  • Decreasing Profit Margins: The consistent decrease in gross profit margin could be a significant concern. It might be due to increased cost of goods sold or a shift in the company’s product mix.
  • Profitability Concerns: While the company is still profitable, the decline in profit before tax and ROCE in 20X3 might indicate the need for a strategic review of operations, cost structures, and market strategies.


  • Cost Management: NCTech should focus on controlling costs or improving operational efficiency to maintain or improve profit margins.
  • Revenue Diversification: Exploring new markets or product offerings could help stabilize revenue streams.
  • Market Analysis: A thorough market analysis might be required to understand the causes of revenue and profit fluctuations.
  • This financial analysis provides a snapshot of NCTech’s financial health and performance trends, which are crucial for strategic decision-making and future planning.

Business model 

NCTech’s business model revolves around providing IaaS solutions. This model allows flexibility and scalability to clients, enhancing competitiveness by meeting diverse and changing customer needs efficiently.

Prospects of the company

The prospects of NCTech hinge on:

  • Past Performance: Historical financial success, market share growth.
  • Business Model and Strategy: Effectiveness of its IaaS model and strategic positioning in the market.
  • Industry Dynamics: The cloud service industry trends, including demand growth and technological advancements.
  • Risks and Opportunities: Potential for expanding service offerings, risks from competition, technological shifts, and regulatory changes.

NCTech’s success will depend on its ability to navigate industry challenges, leverage opportunities, and maintain strategic agility in a rapidly evolving technological landscape.

Industry Introduction – NCTech ACCA SBL Preseen

Market size and lifecycle stage

  • Size and Growth: The cloud service industry, particularly focusing on Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), is typically large and expanding, especially in developed countries like Farland.
  • Lifecycle Stage: Given the growth and technological advancements, it’s likely in the growth stage. This stage is characterized by increasing customer adoption, technological improvements, and growing competition. 

NCTech’s Market Position

  • Market Share: NCTech, a leading company in this space, likely holds a significant market share. However, the exact position would depend on specific figures in the scenario.
  • Competitiveness: Its competitiveness would be influenced by its ability to innovate, pricing strategies, service quality, and customer relationships.

Key Players and Market Structure

  • Key Players: The industry likely features several players, including large multinational corporations and specialized firms.
  • Market Structure: The scenario may not indicate a monopoly but could suggest an oligopolistic market, where a few large companies dominate. This structure often leads to competitive yet strategically aware market dynamics.

Main Customers and Demographics

  • Customer Base: NCTech’s customers are likely diverse, including small and medium enterprises (SMEs), large corporations, and possibly governmental entities, depending on the services offered.
  • Demographics: The customer demographics vary widely but are typically organizations with a strong reliance on digital infrastructure and cloud services. The scenario may provide more specific demographic insights.

Sales and Distribution Channels

  • Sales Channels: NCTech’s sales channels could include direct sales (through an in-house sales team), online platforms, and possibly partnerships with other tech companies.
  • Distribution Networks: In the context of IaaS, distribution mainly involves digital Infrastructure. Hence, the focus would be on robust, secure, and efficient delivery of services over the Internet rather than physical distribution networks.

Corporate governance

Governing Body and Ownership of the Company

The NCTech ACCA SBL Preseen document provides insights into NCTech’s governing body and ownership structure. Here’s an elaboration on these aspects:

Governing Body: Board of Directors

Board Composition:

The NCTech board comprises individuals with diverse backgrounds and expertise. Key roles include the CEO, Commercial Director, Operations Director, and six Non-Executive Directors (including the Non-Executive Chair).

Each member plays a crucial role in shaping the company’s strategy and overseeing its implementation.


  1. Audit Committee: Responsible for overseeing financial reporting, internal controls, and risk management processes.
  2. Nominations Committee: Manages board appointments, ensuring a balance of skills and experience.
  3. Remuneration Committee: Sets compensation for directors and senior management.
  4. Risk Committee: Identifies and manages potential risks to the company, including operational, financial, and strategic risks.

Governance Focus:

The board emphasizes good corporate governance practices.

Its focus areas include operational excellence, client satisfaction, brand development, stakeholder relationships, and profitability.

Risk Management:

The Risk Register, a critical tool overseen by the board, identifies key risks such as competition, staffing, technology, data security, and regulatory changes.

Regularly reviewing and managing these risks is a core aspect of the board’s responsibilities.

Ownership Structure

  • Initial Funding: NCTech was initially funded by venture capital investments, implying that external investors played a significant role in the company’s financing in the early stages.
  • Public Listing: The company is publicly listed, which indicates a transition from private ownership to public shareholders. Public listing often brings greater transparency and a need for adherence to stricter regulations and standards.
  • Founders’ Stake: The founders of NCTech hold significant stakes in the company. This detail suggests that they substantially influence company decisions and its strategic direction. Their ongoing involvement hints at a strong alignment with the company’s vision and values.
  • Shareholder Influence: As a publicly listed company, NCTech is accountable to its shareholders. This accountability includes regular reporting on financial performance and strategic decisions.

Through general meetings and voting rights, shareholders can influence key decisions, including appointing board members.

Summary – Corporate Governance

The governance and ownership structure of NCTech is indicative of a company that has evolved from a start-up with venture capital funding to a publicly traded entity with a professional governance structure. This transition usually reflects a maturity in business operations and an increased focus on corporate governance, transparency, and shareholder value. Understanding this structure is crucial for students as it provides context for strategic decisions and how they impact the company’s performance and future direction.

Ethics and Corporate Social Responsibility

Main ethical threats 

A company operating in the cloud service industry, such as the one described in the NCTech ACCA SBL Preseen material, NCTech, could face several perceived ethical threats, including:

  • Data Privacy and Security: Handling vast amounts of sensitive client data requires strict adherence to data protection regulations and ethical standards to maintain confidentiality and integrity. Unauthorized access or data breaches can lead to significant ethical and legal repercussions.
  • Intellectual Property Risks: As a technology company, NCTech likely develops proprietary software or maintains trade secrets. Ensuring that intellectual property rights are respected and safeguarded is crucial to maintaining trust and avoiding ethical dilemmas.
  • Compliance with Laws and Regulations: Different regions have laws governing digital data, privacy, and cloud storage. It is ethically important that a company complies with all relevant legislation, which includes international regulations if operating globally.
  • Transparency: Includes being open about how data is used, stored, and shared. Lack of transparency can lead to mistrust among users and clients.
  • Service Reliability and Continuity: Customers rely on cloud services for continuous and reliable access to their data and applications. Ethical considerations include upholding service agreements and being honest about issues affecting service availability.
  • Environmental Sustainability: Data centers consume significant energy resources. Ethical threats may arise from the environmental impact of a company’s operations, and corporate social responsibility dictates the need for sustainable practices.
  • Conflict of Interest: As the company grows, the founders might face conflicts between their interests and those of the company, its clients, or other stakeholders.
  • Employee Treatment and Labor Practices: Ethical considerations around how employees are treated, including fair labor practices, diversity, and inclusion, can impact the company’s reputation and operation.
  • Customer Manipulation or Exploitation: Avoid deceptive practices such as misleading marketing, unfair billing, or exploiting customer data without consent.
  • Cybersecurity and Ethical Hacking: The company must balance protecting its systems and client data with ethical considerations regarding how it responds to and manages cybersecurity threats.

These ethical threats must be managed proactively, typically through robust governance structures, ethical guidelines, employee training, and a strong corporate culture prioritizing ethical behavior and compliance with legal standards. Addressing these threats is a matter of regulatory compliance and maintaining a company’s reputation and trustworthiness in a highly competitive market.

Environmental, Social, and Technological risks 

The NCTech ACCA SBL Preseen material does not explicitly detail the company’s environmental, social, and technological risks. However, we can infer general risks that a company like NCTech in the cloud service industry might encounter:

Environmental Risks:

  • Energy Consumption: Data centers typically consume large amounts of energy, which can have significant environmental impacts, particularly if sourced from non-renewable resources.
  • Carbon Footprint: The carbon footprint that results from the company’s operations is closely related to energy consumption.
  • E-Waste Management: The disposal of outdated or damaged hardware poses environmental risks if not managed properly.
  • Resource Utilization: Over-reliance on certain minerals and resources for technological equipment can lead to sustainability issues.

Social Risks:

  • Data Privacy and Ethics: Handling sensitive data raises social concerns regarding the privacy and security of user information.
  • Employee Welfare: Social issues include fair labour practices, working conditions, and employee rights, which are critical for maintaining a satisfied and productive workforce.
  • Digital Divide: Providing access to technology across diverse socio-economic groups without contributing to inequality is a growing concern.
  • Community Impact: The effect of the company’s operations on local communities, including infrastructure strain or contributions to local development.

Technological Risks:

  • Cyber Security: As a cloud service provider, NCTech is particularly vulnerable to cyber-attacks, which could compromise client data and services.
  • Rapid Technological Change: Keeping up with rapid technological changes is essential to stay competitive, but it also poses the risk of investing in soon-to-be obsolete tech.
  • System Failures: Disruptions in service due to technical failures can impact the reliability and availability of the services provided.
  • Dependency on Vendors: Relying on third-party vendors for hardware, software, or other services can introduce risks associated with the vendor’s reliability and security practices.
  • AI and Automation: The ethical use of AI and ensuring that automation does not lead to broad social issues such as job displacement.
  • Interoperability: Ensuring systems and services can effectively integrate with other providers and clients without compromising security or functionality.

These categories of risks are not exhaustive, but they offer a general sense of the types of challenges that a cloud service company like NCTech may face. Each specific risk would require tailored risk assessments and effective mitigation strategies.

PEST – NCTech ACCA SBL Preseen

The PEST model is an analytical framework used to consider the external factors affecting an organization. It stands for Political, Economic, Sociocultural, and Technological factors. While we don’t explicitly mention PEST factors in the NCTech ACCA SBL Preseen material, we can infer the potential PEST analysis for NCTech, the cloud services company described in the NCTech ACCA SBL Preseen scenario.

Political Factors:

  • Data Protection and Privacy Laws: As a cloud service provider, NCTech must comply with data protection laws like GDPR in Europe or similar legislation in Farland, which would impact how they manage customer data.
  • Technology Export Controls: NCTech might have to navigate export controls and international sanctions if it works with technology that falls under national security concerns.
  • Public Sector Contracts: NCTech may be affected by political decisions on procurement for public sector IT services, which can be both an opportunity and a risk depending on the political climate.

Economic Factors:

  • Economic Cycles: The demand for NCTech’s services may correlate with the broader economic health of Farland and its trading partners, where economic downturns might reduce expenditure on IT services.
  • Innovation Funding: The level of available funding for technological innovation, through government grants or private investment, can support the company’s growth and R&D efforts.
  • Foreign Exchange Risk: If NCTech operates internationally, it could be exposed to foreign exchange risks, affecting its profitability when converting revenues back to its home currency.

Sociocultural Factors:

  • Consumer Trends in Technology Usage: The shift towards mobile and IoT devices affects the kind of cloud services demanded by consumers and businesses alike.
  • Emphasis on Corporate Social Responsibility: Societal expectations regarding responsible business practices might influence NCTech’s operations and brand positioning.
  • Remote Work Trends: The increasing acceptance and adoption of remote working models could drive demand for cloud-based collaboration tools, a potential market for NCTech to tap into.

Technological Factors:

  • Increasing Cloud Adoption: Trends showing movement from on-premises servers to cloud solutions present growth opportunities for NCTech.
  • 5G Technology: The rollout of 5G networks can enable faster and more reliable cloud services, possibly creating new service offerings for NCTech.
  • Big Data and Analytics: With organizations looking to leverage big data, NCTech could innovate in providing analytical tools and services over the cloud, using AI and ML technologies.

Summary – PEST

Each of these factors is interdependent and can have compound effects on NCTech. For example, technological advancements might open up new markets, but these could come with additional regulatory scrutiny (Political). Meanwhile, economic conditions could influence the rate at which these technologies are adopted, and sociocultural attitudes could shape the willingness of the market to accept these innovations. Understanding these connections is critical for strategic planning and risk management for a company like NCTech operating in the cloud services industry.

Ansoff’s Matrix 

Ansoff’s Matrix is a strategic planning tool that can help a company like NCTech decide on its product and market growth strategy. It consists of four growth options based on whether products are new or existing and whether markets are new or existing. Here’s how we might apply Ansoff’s Matrix to NCTech, with detailed references to the company’s nature (a cloud service provider) and its industry:

Market Penetration (Existing Products/Existing Markets):

  • NCTech could focus on increasing its market share within Farland by outcompeting rivals through better service quality, customer service, reduced pricing, or enhanced marketing efforts.
  • Encouraging existing customers to use more of NCTech’s services, perhaps through bundled offerings or loyalty programs, can deepen market penetration.

Product Development (New Products/Existing Markets):

  • NCTech could develop new cloud services or features that cater to the existing customer base’s evolving needs within Farland, such as integrated Big Data analytics services, enhanced cybersecurity features, or industry-specific cloud solutions.
  • Another path may involve investing in R&D to leverage emerging technologies like AI, ML, or blockchain to create innovative cloud services that existing customers would find valuable.

Market Development (Existing Products/New Markets):

  • Exploring new geographical territories could be an option for NCTech, perhaps by targeting developing economies where cloud adoption is accelerating.
  • Another opportunity is to target new customer segments within Farland or in global markets, such as government entities, large enterprises, or sectors like healthcare or education requiring customized cloud solutions.

Diversification (New Products/New Markets):

  • Given the company’s technological expertise, NCTech may venture into new markets with new product offerings, such as developing proprietary software applications for niche markets or providing consulting services for digital transformation.
  • The riskiest of all strategies, diversification, might involve acquisition or partnership with other tech firms to enter new markets with a broader portfolio of products and services, extending beyond traditional cloud services.

Summary – Ansoff’s Matrix

Given NCTech’s nature as a cloud service provider and its position in a rapidly evolving industry, the most effective strategy for growth could be a balanced combination of Product Development and Market Development. This approach leverages existing strengths while cautiously exploring new frontiers.

Product Development:

  • Innovation: As technology is at the heart of NCTech’s offerings, continuous innovation keeps the company relevant and competitive. It can develop new products incorporating emerging technologies such as AI or ML, improve service efficiency, and offer customers advanced analytics capabilities.
  • Customization: Offering specialized cloud solutions tailored to specific industries (healthcare or finance) with stringent compliance and data privacy requirements could help differentiate NCTech from competitors.
  • Integration: Developing integrative tools that combine various functions (like storage, analytics, and security) into one seamless cloud service could enhance user convenience and stickiness.

Market Development:

  • Geographical Expansion: Tapping into new geographic markets, especially emerging economies where cloud adoption is growing, could provide significant growth potential. This strategy leverages the success of existing products and applies it to new markets.
  • New Segments: Within Farland or in international markets, NCTech could target underserved market segments, such as small and mid-sized businesses (SMBs), providing them with scalable cloud solutions suitable for their growth.

Justification for the Strategy:

  • Industry Growth: The cloud service industry is growing, with businesses increasingly relying on cloud solutions for operational flexibility and scalability.
  • Customer Demand: A continued demand for secure, reliable, and innovative cloud services continues. Developing new products that meet these needs can increase customer retention and attraction.
  • Competitive Edge: By focusing on innovation and development, NCTech can maintain a technological edge, vital in a fast-paced industry.
  • Diversification of Risk: Market Development allows NCTech to diversify its market risk by not being overly reliant on its current market, helping to stabilize cash flow and revenues in the face of localized economic downturns.
  • Utilizing Core Competencies: NCTech’s experience and expertise in cloud services can be leveraged to create new products and enter new markets, using its brand reputation as a springboard.
  • Regulatory Environment: Both strategies consider NCTech’s need to comply with data protection and cybersecurity regulations, which is crucial when introducing new products or entering new markets.

This recommended approach aligns with the company’s technological foundations and the industry’s direction, is responsive to market demands, and leverages the company’s core competencies for sustainable growth. It also balances the focus between consolidating the company’s position in its current market with prudent expansion into new markets. Risks are moderated by emphasizing innovation in familiar territory while exploring geographic or market segment expansion with proven products and services.

Porter’s Diamond 

Porter’s Diamond model analyzes the competitive advantages of nations or regions, providing insight into the advantages a company like NCTech might have within its home country of Farland. Here’s the application of the model to NCTech’s scenario:

Factor Conditions:

  • Given the country’s development and technological focus, NCTech likely benefits from a skilled labor force in Farland, providing a pool of expertise in software engineering and IT services.
  • Advanced technological Infrastructure, such as high-speed Internet and reliable telecom networks in Farland, is critical for cloud services, offering NCTech a robust platform to build and deliver its services.
  • Access to capital through Farland’s developed financial market enables NCTech to invest in innovation and expansion.

Demand Conditions:

  • The sophistication of domestic customers in Farland, potentially due to high technological literacy and a competitive business sector, drives NCTech to improve and innovate its service offerings.
  • Strong demand from local businesses for cloud services ensures a steady market for NCTech to grow and deepens its understanding of customer needs.
  • Related and Supporting Industries:
  • Farland’s developed technological ecosystem, including suppliers of hardware, software, and services, supports NCTech’s operations and allows for potential synergies and collaborations.
  • Proximity to related industries, such as cybersecurity and data analytics companies, can foster innovation and create additional services that NCTech can integrate into its offerings.

Firm Strategy, Structure, and Rivalry:

  • The presence of other technology firms in Farland might create a competitive environment that pressures NCTech to improve efficiency, service quality, and innovation continuously.
  • NCTech’s internal firm policies and practices, including its emphasis on talent retention, innovation, and customer service, contribute to its competitive positioning.

Summary – Porter’s Diamond 

NCTech’s competitive advantage is underpinned by Farland’s strong technological Infrastructure and skilled workforce, which are essential for a cloud service company. The advanced factor conditions provide the necessary resources for R&D and the delivery of high-quality services. The sophisticated local demand encourages the company to stay on the cutting edge of cloud service offerings, promoting innovation and customer-focused solutions.

The synergies with related and supporting industries offer partnership opportunities, better service integration, and access to cutting-edge technologies. This supportive environment fosters a culture of excellence and innovation within NCTech.

Finally, the firm strategy and rivalry within Farland stimulate NCTech to strive for excellence and efficiency to stand out in a competitive market. Therefore, the nation’s competitive environment not only sharpens NCTech’s competitive edge but also pushes it towards constant improvement and adaptation to stay ahead.

The combination of these factors suggests that NCTech’s competitive advantage lies in its ability to leverage the rich resources and demand conditions of its home base and its strategic response to the competitive pressures it faces in Farland. The justification for this analysis lies in observing how the home country’s attributes and the firm’s strategies converge to create a unique competitive environment suited to fostering a high-growth cloud service company.

Porter’s Generic Strategies

Applying Porter’s Generic Strategies to NCTech can provide a clear understanding of the company’s competitive positioning and strategic approach. Porter’s Generic Strategies include Cost Leadership, Differentiation, and Focus (which can further be divided into Cost Focus and Differentiation Focus). Let’s analyze NCTech’s strategy based on the information provided in the NCTech ACCA SBL Preseen document:

Cost Leadership

This strategy involves being the lowest-cost producer in the industry, targeting a broad market. Companies pursuing cost leadership typically benefit from economies of scale, efficient operations, and aggressive pricing strategies.

NCTech’s Alignment: The company’s focus on competitive pricing hints at an element of cost leadership. However, there is no indication that NCTech is the lowest-cost provider in the industry or that it primarily competes on price. It does not seem to focus heavily on economies of scale or cost minimization to an extent that defines its primary strategy.


Differentiation strategy is about offering unique products or services valued by customers, thus allowing the company to charge premium prices.

NCTech’s Alignment: NCTech specializes in Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) without offering other cloud services like PaaS or SaaS. This specialization can be seen as a form of differentiation. However, the NCTech ACCA SBL Preseen does not provide strong evidence that this differentiation is unique enough to create a clear competitive advantage or that it allows NCTech to charge premium prices.

Focus Strategy

Under this strategy, a company targets a specific segment or group of segments in the market (niche market) and tailors its strategy to serve them through cost or differentiation focus.

NCTech’s Alignment:

  • Cost Focus: There is no strong evidence suggesting that NCTech targets a niche market with lower costs than competitors.
  • Differentiation Focus: NCTech might exhibit elements of this strategy if it targets a specific segment of the cloud services market (such as certain types of businesses or industries) with its IaaS specialization. However, the NCTech ACCA SBL Preseen does not provide clear evidence of such a focused approach.

Conclusion: Hybrid Strategy

NCTech does not align perfectly with one of Porter’s Generic Strategies. Instead, it appears to employ a hybrid strategy, combining elements of cost leadership and differentiation:

  • The company’s competitive pricing suggests a nod towards cost leadership without being the industry’s cost leader.
  • Its focus on IaaS could be seen as a differentiation strategy, but it’s not clearly defined as a unique competitive advantage.

Therefore, NCTech blends cost leadership and differentiation aspects without fully committing to either. This hybrid approach can be effective but requires careful management to ensure that the company maintains its competitive edge and does not become “stuck in the middle” – a situation where it fails to achieve the full benefits of either strategy.

For students analyzing this scenario, it’s important to recognize how companies in real-life scenarios may not always fit neatly into theoretical models. Understanding the nuances and hybrid approaches in strategic positioning is key to a comprehensive analysis. 

Porter’s Five Forces 

Applying Porter’s Five Forces model to NCTech, the fictional cloud service company specializing in Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), will help understand the competitive forces and the industry’s overall attractiveness. Here’s how each force might apply to NCTech:

Threat of New Entrants

  • Barriers to Entry: The cloud services industry typically has high barriers to entry due to the need for significant technological expertise, infrastructure investment, and customer trust. This might protect NCTech from an influx of new competitors.
  • Capital Requirements: The initial capital requirements for establishing a robust cloud service infrastructure are substantial, which could deter new entrants.
  • Brand Loyalty: If NCTech has strong brand loyalty, it would further discourage new competitors.

Bargaining Power of Suppliers

  • Supplier Concentration: In the cloud industry, key suppliers might include hardware providers, software vendors, and data centers. If these suppliers are concentrated and have significant power, they could influence costs and operational efficiency.
  • Switching Costs: If NCTech faces high switching costs for changing suppliers, their bargaining power decreases.

Bargaining Power of Buyers

  • Buyer Power: In the IaaS market, large clients may have significant bargaining power, especially if they contribute a substantial portion of NCTech’s revenue.
  • Price Sensitivity: If customers are price-sensitive and alternative service providers are available, this could increase the bargaining power of buyers.

Threat of Substitute Products or Services

  • Availability of Substitutes: The primary substitutes for IaaS are other cloud service models like Platform as a Service (PaaS) or Software as a Service (SaaS). If these alternatives offer better or more cost-effective solutions, the threat of substitution could be high.
  • Technological Advancements: Rapid technological changes in the cloud computing industry could also increase the threat of substitutes.

Rivalry Among Existing Competitors

  • Competitive Rivalry: Given the NCTech ACCA SBL Preseen document’s indication of a competitive market, NCTech likely faces intense rivalry. This includes competition on price, service quality, innovation, and customer service.
  • Market Growth: If the industry is still in a growth phase, as indicated, the rivalry might be less destructive, focusing more on market expansion rather than zero-sum competition.


The cloud service industry, specifically IaaS, where NCTech operates, is competitive with significant entry barriers, the potential for supplier and buyer power, a tangible threat of substitutes, and intense rivalry among existing players. This analysis suggests that while NCTech is in a potentially lucrative market, it faces considerable competitive pressures that require strategic management to maintain and grow its market position.


To carry out a SWOT analysis for NCTech, a cloud service company, we must assess its internal Strengths and Weaknesses and the external Opportunities and Threats it faces within the industry and market in which it operates. Here is a detailed SWOT analysis considering the company’s nature and specifics of the cloud services industry:


  • Technical Expertise: The company’s ownership by three founding software engineers likely contributes to a strong foundation in technology and innovation, giving NCTech a solid knowledge base to build and improve its services.
  • Market Position: Given its established presence in the industry with significant growth in its first 10 years, NCTech has a strong market position that can be leveraged for further expansion.
  • Human Resources: With operations in a developed country like Farland, NCTech has access to a highly skilled workforce, a key asset in the knowledge-driven cloud services industry.
  • Service Range: Offering IaaS, PaaS, and SaaS, NCTech provides a comprehensive range of cloud services that cater to diverse customer needs.


  • Scalability Challenges: Rapid growth can strain resources, and NCTech needs to ensure its Infrastructure and team can scale effectively to meet increasing demand.
  • Dependence on Founders: The significant roles played by the founding owners might centralize decision-making and limit diverse leadership inputs.
  • Flexibility and adaptability: NCTech operates in a highly competitive industry, where differentiation is challenging, and giants like Amazon AWS, Microsoft Azure, and Google Cloud dominate.


  • Market Growth: The demand for cloud services is rising, particularly due to the global shift toward remote work and digital transformation across industries.
  • Technological Advancements: Innovations in AI, quantum computing, 5G, and cybersecurity offer NCTech avenues to expand and enhance its services.
  • Geographical Expansion: Entering new markets, especially emerging ones, presents significant growth opportunities for NCTech to extend its global footprint.


  • Cybersecurity: As a cloud provider, cybersecurity risks are high-stakes, with the potential for data breaches and loss of customer trust.
  • Regulatory Changes: Data protection and privacy laws constantly evolve, creating compliance complexities that could impact operations.
  • Price War: With heavy competition, NCTech could be forced into a price war, impacting margins and sustainability.

Summary – SWOT

NCTech possesses strong technical expertise and a diversified product portfolio, key strengths in the competitive cloud services industry. However, challenges in scalability and a possible over-reliance on its founding members for leadership pose internal weaknesses that need to be addressed for sustainable growth.

The increasing adoption of cloud services globally and ongoing technological advancements present significant opportunities for NCTech to innovate and expand. Nevertheless, the company must navigate an expanding threat landscape, including cybersecurity challenges and regulatory uncertainties.

Given the company’s ten-year growth trajectory and its operational context within a tech-centric developed country, it is reasonable to infer that NCTech has established a robust strategy and Infrastructure. As such, the company seems well-positioned to capitalize on market opportunities and manage industry threats appropriately. The primary recommendation following this SWOT analysis would be to focus on reinforcing strengths and addressing weaknesses by diversifying management, investing in scalable Infrastructure and human resources, and leveraging technological advancements to cater to market needs dynamically while managing risks proactively.

Mendelow’s Matrix 

Based on the information in the NCTech ACCA SBL Preseen material for December 2023 on NCTech, Mendelow’s matrix can be applied to analyze the different stakeholders involved with the company. Stakeholders will be classified into four quadrants according to their level of interest and power.

Quadrant A (High Interest/High Power):

  • Founding Shareholders (3 software engineers) – They have a significant interest in the company as founders with a strong emotional and financial investment. Each holds a 10% stake and is highly influential due to their board positions as CEO, commercial director, and operations director.
  • Institutional Investors (Pension funds, unit trusts) – With no institution holding more than 10%, these investors do not have an overriding power individually. Still, collectively, they can significantly influence NCTech’s decisions due to their financial stakes, especially concerning the recent share price concerns.
  • Board of Directors – The board, including the executives and non-executive directors, holds significant power in NCTech’s decision-making. Their interest aligns with the company’s strategic direction, governance, and performance.

Quadrant B (High Interest/Low Power):

  • Employees – They are directly impacted by the company’s success, policies, and culture. Their interest is high, but they have low power in decision-making unless collective action is taken, for instance, via trade unions.
  • Clients (SMEs) – SME clients are interested in the IaaS services provided by NCTech for their businesses, but individually, they have low power. Collectively, though, shifts in client preferences can influence NCTech’s offerings.
  • Suppliers, including Internet Service Providers (ISPs) – They have a vested interest in maintaining a business relationship with NCTech but generally have low power unless they are dominant industry players.

Quadrant C (Low Interest/High Power):

  • Government and Regulatory Bodies – Government entities and regulators have the power to affect NCTech through legislation and regulations but may have low interest unless triggered by significant events or changes in the industry.
  • Competitors – They have the power to influence market dynamics and NCTech’s market share but have a low direct interest in NCTech’s specific strategic decisions unless they impact the broader industry.

Quadrant D (Low Interest/Low Power):

  • General Public – The public has low interest and power regarding NCTech’s operations unless a large-scale issue arises that draws media attention and public scrutiny.
  • Minority Shareholders – Small shareholders who invest for diversification or speculative purposes typically have low interest in active governance and limited power to influence company decisions.


The application of Mendelow’s matrix to NCTech reflects a distribution of stakeholders across all four quadrants with different levels of interest and power. The company’s founding shareholders and board members are key power holders with high interest (Quadrant A) and play a decisive role in NCTech’s strategic direction. Institutional investors are also significant, particularly in the context of company share performance. Employees, clients, and suppliers (Quadrant B) are highly interested but possess lower individual power, while government bodies and competitors (Quadrant C) hold potential sway without direct vested interest. Lastly, the general public and minority shareholders (Quadrant D) present minimal direct interest or power under usual circumstances. The matrix showcases the need for NCTech to prioritize and manage different stakeholders effectively to ensure strategic alignment and successful business outcomes.

Philip Meagher
20 min read


    1. Thank you for your comment. You can use the Baldrige model when talking about performance excellence. Could you clarify strategic chance? Are you meaning strategic choice or strategic change?

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